Range of Performance
- Thyroid Gland
- Reflux Diseases (Heart Burn)
- Sigmoid Diverticulosis /-diverticulitis
- Adipositas or Obesity
- Colon Carcinoma
- Rectal Carcinoma
The thyroid gland consists of two lobes connected by a bridge, the so-called thyroid isthmus. The organ is important for the production of thyroid hormones as well as for the production of calcitonin, which regulates the metabolization of calcium and phosphates.
The enlargement of the thyroid is called goitre or struma.and usually caused by an iodine deficiency. This lack of iodine is often not compensated sufficiently by additional doses of iodine in our nutrition. First, this lack of iodine leads to diffuse changes of the thyroid, later on to nodal changes.
The following changes can make thyroid surgery necessary:
- Enlargement of the thyroid causing respiratory distress
- Nodular goitre
- Thyroid adenoma: areas within the thyroid that produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormones
- Cosmetic impairments
- In cases of suspected malignant thyroid tumours
- Auto-immune diseases of the thyroid like Basedow's disease
A hernia is a shifting of intestines to the outside through an innate or acquired opening. It consists of the so-called hernial orifice (opening), e.g. in the groin or in a scar, and the content, e.g. intestines.
Most hernias are acquired and most of the time no specific reasons for the incidence can be found. Risk circumstances are obesity, chronic cough, prostatic hypertrophy, pregnancy, softening of the connective tissue, and the repeated heaving of heavy loads.
Inguinal (Groin) Hernia
80% of all hernia occur in the groin. In Germany about 150-200 patients per 100.000 inhabitants get herniotomy each year. About ninety per cent of the cases are men.
The gallbladder stores bile which is released into the small intestine on stimulation by food intake. Gall-bladder stones are the result of a chemical imbalance during bile production, they develop like stones in standing waters.
About 15 mio. people in Germany are affected by gall-bladder stones, 75% of them do not display symptoms. 25% of all patients suffer from symptoms like bellyaches, pain in the right upper abdomen accompanied by a sense of fullness in the abdomen or winds.
Reflux Diseases (Heart Burn)
To avoid a backflow (reflux) of gastric contents in the oesophagus, the gullet is separated from the inlet of the stomach by the so-called cardiac sphincter. In cases when the cardiac sphincter is affected, e.g. diaphragmatic hernia, an inflammation of the oesophagus can occur, a so-called reflux oesophagitis.
This inflammation mostly affects the lower parts of the gullet that are adjacent to the stomach. In cases of chronic inflammation the cells can degenerate and develop into oesophagal cancer.
Circumstances like stress, bad nutrition and obesity can further a reflux of gastric content into the oesophagus and cause inflammation. The main symptoms are burning pain behind the breast bone and frequent heart burn. The symptoms occur mostly at night while the patient is lying flat on his back, so that gastric acid gets into the gullet.
Sigmoi Diverticulosis /-Diverticulitis
A diverticulum is a turning outward (outpouching) of intestine. Diverticulosis of the colon is civilization disease that results from obesity, chronic obstruction and a lack of bulkage in the food. A softening of the connective tissue in older age (70% patients age 70 or older suffer from diverticulitis) furthers the disease.
For normal peristalsis (bowel function) it is necessary to take in a high amount of bulkage and to drink 2-3l water a day. Wholemeal products, pulse, lettuce, vegetables, potatoes, (dried) fruits, nuts and almonds contain bulkage. Especially products made of wholemeal like flour, bread, bagles, pasta and cakes are rich with bulkage.
60 – 90 % of all outpouching occurs in the so-called s-colon or sigmoid colon. According to the missing amount of bulkage the pressure inside the colon increases and leads to a turning outward of the diverticulcum.
Adipositas or Obesity
Adipositas or obesity is an excessive increase or development of adipose tissue, according to an incongruity of energy supply and energy consumption.
Pathologic obesity is a well-documented and considerable danger to health with a high risk of diabetes, hypertension, vascular disease, cardiac disease, arthralgia, effort dyspnoea and sleep apnoea.
The colon is about 1-1,5 m long and connected to the small intestine. About 15 cm above the anus the colon passes into the rectum.
The colon is responsible for the absorption of water and trace elements out of the digestive juice produced in the small intestine, so that the stool gets formed and solid.
The reasons for the development of colonic cancer are not known. In most of the cases the first step is the development of benign intestinal polyps that later can degenerate to malignant tumours, like colconic cancer or colon carcinoma.
Colonic cancer is the second most occuring cancer in Germany, the average age at which patients get first diagnosed with colonic cancer is 65. In Central Europe 30-35 patients per 100.000 inhabitants are affected each year. In Germany about 24.000 patients die of colonic cancer each year.
The straight bowel (rectum) serves a kind of reservoir for the stool before it gets emptied by a very complex process involving the anal sphincter (constrictor muscle). The rectum is the part of the intestines that ranges from the anal sphincter to the s-colon, which represents the transition into the colon.
About 60 % of all malignant tumours of the colon and the straight bowel occur in the rectum. About half of them are palpable by finger examination.
More than fifty per cent of all people older than thirty suffer from haemorrhoids. Men are affected two times more than women.
Haemorrhoids are nodal dilatations of vessels of the cavernous body which is situated above the anal sphincter. This cavernous body is involved in the closing of the anal canal before evacuation of the bowels.
Enlargement of haemorrhoids happens when the pressure in the straight bowel gets too high, e.g. forced straining during bowel movement, ralaxation of the anal sphincter in old age, long hours spent sitting, chronic obstruction and low- bulkage nutrition, obesity and during pregnancy.
Typical symptoms when suffering from haemorrhoids:
- Blood occuring with stool, on toilet paper or underwear
- Itching, discharge, smearing
- Foreign-body sensation
- Sensation of incomplete evacuation of bowels
- Prolapse of nodes during bowel movement